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CentOS配置本地yum源/阿里云yum源/163yuan源并配置yum源的优先级

文章TAG: CentOS YUM
时间:2019-09-17来源/作者:Kangvcar Blogs 编辑:源码库 文章热度:0

一、用Centos镜像搭建本地yum源

由于安装centos后的默认yum源为centos的官方地址,所以在国内使用很慢甚至无法访问,所以一般的做法都是把默认的yum源替换成aliyun的yum源或者163等国内的yum源(下文介绍如何配置)。 

但是以上的方法都是需要网络的,当没有网络的时候就无法使用了,所以还有一个常用的方法就是用Centos的iso镜像搭建本地yum源,这样安装软件的速度就会飞快,缺点是可能有些包没有。

1.安装Centos后默认的yum源如下

[root@kangvcar ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
total 32
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1664 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Base.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1309 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-CR.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 649 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 290 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 630 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Media.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1331 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Sources.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1952 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Vault.repo

2.把默认yum源备份(可选)

[root@kangvcar ~]# mkdir /opt/centos-yum.bak
[root@kangvcar ~]# mv /etc/yum.repos.d/* /opt/centos-yum.bak/

3.在虚拟机上挂载CentOS镜像文件

CentOS,yum,源

[root@kangvcar ~]# mount -t iso9660 /dev/sr0 /opt/centos
mount: /dev/sr0 is write-protected, mounting read-only

4.编写repo文件并指向镜像的挂载目录

[root@kangvcar ~]# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/local.repo 
[local]
name=local
baseurl=file:///opt/centos
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0

5.清除缓存

[root@kangvcar ~]# yum clean all
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Cleaning repos: local
Cleaning up everything
Cleaning up list of fastest mirrors
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum makecache    //把yum源缓存到本地,加快软件的搜索好安装速度
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum list    //列出了3780个包

二、把默认的CentOS yum源修改成国内的aliyun yum源

阿里云官方教程:http://mirrors.aliyun.com/help/centos

1.安装Centos后默认的yum源如下

[root@kangvcar ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
total 32
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1664 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Base.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1309 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-CR.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 649 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 290 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 630 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Media.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1331 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Sources.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1952 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Vault.repo

2.把默认yum源备份(可选)

[root@kangvcar ~]# mkdir /opt/centos-yum.bak
[root@kangvcar ~]# mv /etc/yum.repos.d/* /opt/centos-yum.bak/

3.下载aliyun yum源repo文件(对应自己的系统版本下载即可)

#各系统版本repo文件对应的下载操作
CentOS 5
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-5.repo
CentOS 6
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-6.repo
CentOS 7
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
[root@kangvcar ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release    //查看系统的版本
CentOS Linux release 7.2.1511 (Core)
[root@kangvcar ~]# wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
--2017-06-20 06:43:08-- http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
Resolving mirrors.aliyun.com (mirrors.aliyun.com)... 112.124.140.210, 115.28.122.210
Connecting to mirrors.aliyun.com (mirrors.aliyun.com)|112.124.140.210|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 2573 (2.5K) [application/octet-stream]
Saving to: ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo'
100%[=======================================================================================================>] 2,573    --.-K/s  in 0s   
2017-06-20 06:43:08 (118 MB/s) - ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo' saved [2573/2573]

4.清除缓存

[root@kangvcar ~]# yum clean all
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Cleaning repos: base extras updates
Cleaning up everything
Cleaning up list of fastest mirrors
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum makecache    //把yum源缓存到本地,加快软件的搜索好安装速度
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum list    //总共列出了9954个包

三、把默认的CentOS yum源修改成国内的163源

163官方教程:http://mirrors.163.com/.help/centos.html

1.安装Centos后默认的yum源如下

[root@kangvcar ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
total 32
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1664 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Base.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1309 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-CR.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 649 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 290 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 630 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Media.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1331 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Sources.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1952 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Vault.repo

2.把默认yum源备份(可选)

[root@kangvcar ~]# mkdir /opt/centos-yum.bak
[root@kangvcar ~]# mv /etc/yum.repos.d/* /opt/centos-yum.bak/

3.下载163 yum源repo文件

#各系统版本repo文件对应的下载操作
CentOS 5
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS5-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS5-Base-163.repo
CentOS 6
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS6-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS6-Base-163.repo
CentOS 7
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
[root@kangvcar ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release    //查看系统的版本
CentOS Linux release 7.2.1511 (Core)
[root@kangvcar ~]# wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
--2017-06-20 06:29:47-- http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
Resolving mirrors.163.com (mirrors.163.com)... 123.58.173.185, 123.58.173.186
Connecting to mirrors.163.com (mirrors.163.com)|123.58.173.185|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 1572 (1.5K) [application/octet-stream]
Saving to: ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo'
100%[=======================================================================================================>] 1,572    --.-K/s  in 0s   
2017-06-20 06:29:47 (293 MB/s) - ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo' saved [1572/1572]

4.清除缓存

[root@kangvcar ~]# yum clean all
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Cleaning repos: base extras updates
Cleaning up everything
Cleaning up list of fastest mirrors
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum makecache    //把yum源缓存到本地,加快软件的搜索好安装速度
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum list    //总共列出了9951个包

四、修改yum源的优先级

ps:当既有本地yum源又有163源的时候,我们在装软件包的时候当然希望先用本地的yum源去安装,本地找不到可用的包时再使用163源去安装软件,这里就涉及到了优先级的问题,yum提供的插件yum-plugin-priorities.noarch可以解决这个问题

1.查看系统是否安装了优先级的插件

[root@kangvcar ~]# rpm -qa | grep yum-plugin-
yum-plugin-fastestmirror-1.1.31-34.el7.noarch    
//这里看到没有安装yum-plugin-priorities.noarch这个插件
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum search yum-plugin-priorities    
//用search查看是否有此插件可用
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* base: mirrors.aliyun.com
* extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
* updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
====================================================== N/S matched: yum-plugin-priorities =======================================================
yum-plugin-priorities.noarch : plugin to give priorities to packages from different repos

2.安装yum-plugin-priorities.noarch插件

[root@kangvcar ~]# yum -y install yum-plugin-priorities.noarch

3.查看插件是否启用

[root@kangvcar ~]# cat /etc/yum/pluginconf.d/priorities.conf
[main]
enabled = 1
//1为启用;0为禁用

4.修改本地yum源优先使用

[root@kangvcar ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
total 8
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 2573 May 15 2015 CentOS-Base.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  67 Jun 20 06:04 local.repo
//有两个repo文件
[root@kangvcar ~]# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/local.repo
[local]
name=local
baseurl=file:///opt/centos
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
priority=1
//在原基础上加入priority=1 ;数字越小优先级越高
//可以继续修改其他源的priority值,经测试仅配置本地源的优先级为priority=1就会优先使用本地源了

5.测试

配置优先级前:(使用阿里云yum源)
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum -y install vim
Dependencies Resolved
=================================================================================================================================================
Package              Arch             Version                   Repository           Size
=================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
vim-enhanced            x86_64            2:7.4.160-1.el7_3.1             updates            1.0 M
Updating for dependencies:
vim-common             x86_64            2:7.4.160-1.el7_3.1             updates            5.9 M
省略···
配置优先级后:(使用本地yum源)
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum -y install vim
Dependencies Resolved
=================================================================================================================================================
Package                   Arch            Version                Repository         Size
=================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
vim-enhanced                x86_64           2:7.4.160-1.el7            local           1.0 M
Installing for dependencies:
gpm-libs                  x86_64           1.20.7-5.el7              local            32 k
perl                    x86_64           4:5.16.3-286.el7            local           8.0 M
perl-Carp                  noarch           1.26-244.el7              local            19 k
perl-Encode                 x86_64           2.51-7.el7               local           1.5 M
perl-Exporter                noarch           5.68-3.el7               local            28 k
perl-File-Path               noarch           2.09-2.el7               local            26 k
perl-File-Temp               noarch           0.23.01-3.el7             local            56 k
省略···

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